УДК 332,024

ПРОБЛЕМЫ РАЗВИТИЯ И ПУТИ СОВЕРШЕНСТВОВАНИЯ ТУРИЗМА В КАЗАХСТАНЕ

Батырова Назыгуль Турсынхановна
Международный казахско-турецкий университет имени Х.А.Ясави
Республика Казахстан, к.э.н., доцент

Аннотация
В статье анализируется существующая система стратегического развития бизнеса в сфере туризма и определяется возможность функционирования стратегического планирования экономической сферы туризма в Республике Казахстан. Актуальность работы определяется необходимостью изменения структуры привлекательности индустрии туризма в аспекте повышения региональных преимуществ страны для участия в глобализованном туристском потоке. Авторы определяют, что доля туризма в ВВП Казахстана определяется на уровне стран, которые в целом представлены в сфере туризма, но существенного роста и значительной доли в ВВП нет.

Ключевые слова: Казахстан, международный обмен, стратегический менеджмент, туризм, экономическая категория


PROBLEMS OF DEVELOPMENT AND WAYS TO IMPROVE TOURISM IN KAZAKHSTAN

Batyrova Nazygul
International Kazakh-Turkish University named H.A. Yassavi
Republic of Kazakhstan, PhD, Associate Professor

Abstract
The paper analyzes the current system of strategic business development in the sphere of tourism and determines the possibility for the functioning of strategic planning of the economic sphere of tourism in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The relevance of the work is determined in the need to change the structure of the attractiveness of the tourism industry in the aspect of increasing the regional advantages of the country to participate in the globalized tourist flow. The authors determine that the share of tourism in the GDP of Kazakhstan is determined at the level of countries that are generally represented in tourism, but there is no significant growth and a significant share in GDP.

Keywords: economic category, international exchange, Kazakhstan, strategic management, tourism


Библиографическая ссылка на статью:
Батырова Н.Т. Problems of development and ways to improve tourism in Kazakhstan // Экономика и менеджмент инновационных технологий. 2018. № 2 [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://ekonomika.snauka.ru/2018/02/15784 (дата обращения: 07.03.2018).

Introduction

Recreation and tourism for the time of its existence have turned from hard-to-find rest to the industry of mass recreation and recovery for representatives of different levels of the population of all countries of the world. International tourism has become an integral part of economic and social development and one of the most characteristic manifestations of globalization. The modern industry of tourism and recreation is one of the most profitable types of activity of the world economy dynamically developing. According to the World Tourism Organization and the International Monetary Fund, tourism has come to the forefront since the end of the 1990s and has a leading position in world exports of goods and services, surpassing the automotive industry, the production of chemical products, food products and other industries.

The permanent and efficient development of the tourism services market can be ensured through highly profitable and competitive economic activities of tourism market entities – tourism enterprises, which, as a result of their interaction with the creation and promotion of a comprehensive tourism product, form the tourism infrastructure [1].

The study of tourism enterprises as producers of tourist services, producers of a comprehensive tourist product and its distributors, and therefore of the main subjects of the tourism services market, creates an objective need to determine the essence and theoretical prerequisites for their functioning [2]. Thus, the lack of a stable, unified and unambiguous clarification of the definition of the concept of a “tourist enterprise” that is able to most fully and comprehensively characterize the diversification of enterprises and determine their role in the creation of a comprehensive tourist product in domestic and foreign literature generates different views and approaches on its interpretation and typology enterprises involved in tourism. It should be noted that a certain part of the researchers of the theoretical and practical bases of managing the development of a tourist enterprise do not set themselves the goal to formulate the essence of the concept of this subject, but focus on other aspects of entrepreneurial activity [3].

Kassymbekova [4] defines tourism enterprises as manufacturing enterprises of various forms of ownership (public, private, limited liability companies, joint-stock companies and the like) that produce tourist goods and services for citizens.

At the same time, none of these definitions does not immediately contain two essential components that characterize direct tourism enterprises, namely, they do not determine the existence of a diverse number of characteristic subjects of tourism activity and do not cover the features of the services produced and provided. In this regard, the tourist enterprise is invited to understand – any legal and physical subjects of tourism activities that create and / or provide characteristic and attendant tourist services and a comprehensive tourist product. In this regard, the strategic management of the tourism industry is reduced to the organization of an environment that will be the sector in the future to manage.

2. Materials and methods

Contribution to GDP is carried out by economic activities of tourism and recreation subjects, the volumes of which depend on a set of factors. Among them we have chosen two quantitative indicators: the number of hotels and similar accommodation facilities, sanatoriums and boarding houses with treatment.

The largest amount of income from the provision of tourist services in the context of the regions of Kazakhstan falls on the city of Astana, Almaty and South-Kazakhstan regions. As a hypothesis of the research, we have put forward the assertion that the incomes of the subjects of tourist activity by regions are stochastically dependent on the number of hotels and similar accommodation facilities and sanatoriums and boarding houses with treatment [5].

With the help of stochastic models describing the regularities associated with the simultaneous impact on the object of many factors that can be clearly defined only with mass observations. The most common method for constructing such models is multidimensional statistical analysis, in particular, correlation and regression analysis. As practice shows, stochastic models formed in this way have an advantage in the quantitative description of cause and effect relations in the economy and social sphere in comparison with deterministic models. It is better to understand the nature of the phenomenon being investigated by identifying quantitative relationships that have the form of regression. In turn, this gives an opportunity to influence the identified factors, to intervene in the economic process in order to obtain the expected results.

For the graphic and analytical representation of the income of tourism entities in the context of regions from the number of hotels, similar accommodation facilities and the number of sanatoriums and boarding houses with treatment, modern application packages, namely Microsoft Office, are used, which provides significant acceleration of labor-intensive analytical transformations. One of such programs, according to which it is possible to model stochastic dependencies, is the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet.

3. Results and discussion

The degree of approximation of the mathematical representation of the regularity of the change in the indicator under the influence of the selected factors reflects the coefficient of multiple determination:

 (1)

where  is the actual value of the z-th indicator;  is the average value of the indicator for the period under study;  is deviation of the actual point from the estimated point of the analyzed line.
It follows from the above formula that if , then R = 1, that is, when the sample values fall on the regression line, the multiple determination coefficient takes the value 1. The smaller the deviation of the estimated data and regression line data, the greater the multiple determination coefficient approaches unity.
The econometric model is a logical (mathematical) description of what, according to economic theory, is particularly important in the process of investigating a particular problem. As a rule, the model has the form of an equation or a system of equations characterizing the interdependencies identified by the researcher between economic indicators.
Dependence of GDP on the volume of income of the subjects of tourism activity was investigated using econometric modeling methods.
As a dependent variable in our model, the indicator Y (incomes of tourism entities, KZT m.) Was used, and as independent – х1 (the number of hotels and similar accommodation facilities) and х2 (the number of sanatoriums and boarding houses with treatment).
As a dependent variable in our model, the indicator Y (incomes of subjects of tourist activity, mln. tenge) was used, and as independent (the number of hotels and similar accommodation facilities) and (the number of sanatoriums and boarding houses with treatment).
In order to take into account the influence of other factors on the result, econometric models introduce an additional single regressor х0 for the free term, as a result of which the classical stochastic regression function takes the following form:

 (2)

but for an individual i-th element, this is:

 (3)

The additive value of  in econometric models reflects the deviation of the actual data of the dependent quantity from the simulated ones: .

Table 1. The income of the subjects of tourism activities and the number of collective accommodation facilities by regions
Region Income from the provision of tourist services (excluding VAT, excise tax and similar compulsory payments), KZT’000 Additional factor (X0) Hotels and similar accommodation facilities (X1) Sanatoriums and boarding houses with treatment (X2)
Astana 6644,6 1 1181 19
Almaty 4293,5 1 1080 7
Akmola region 18294,4 1 4201 16
Aktobe region 1691,3 1 1888 7
Almaty region 1646,9 1 1039 5
Atyrau region 2325,3 1 4490 21
East-Kazakhstan region 8931,4 1 3269 18
Jambyl region 1489,3 1 3715 13
West-Kazakhstan region 3240,3 1 2269 10
Karaganda region 3347,4 1 987 3
Kostanay region 394,3 1 340 3
Kyzylorda region 7422,4 1 7669 45
Mangistau region 1963,5 1 1467 9
Pavlodar region 6604,4 1 5511 26
North-Kazakhstan region 4413,4 1 1870 12
South-Kazakhstan region 2669,5 1 912 7

The econometric model that explains the behavior of one indicator consists of one equation, and the model that characterizes the change in several indicators is made up of the same number of equations. In the model there can also be identities that reflect functional relationships in a particular economic system. Since such a model combines not only theoretical, qualitative analysis of interrelations, but also empirical information, then in it, unlike simply an economic model, there are always stochastic remnants. It is the probabilistic characteristics of these residues that predetermine the quality of one or another analytical form of the model. The econometric model is a function or system of functions that describes the correlation-regression relationship between economic indicators, and depending on the causal relationships between them, one or more of these indicators are considered as dependent variables and others as independent variables.

To be an effective tool for studying economic processes, the mathematical model must first meet the following requirements:

  • build on the basis of economic theory and reflect the objective laws of processes;
  • correctly reproduce the function and (or) the structure of a real economic system;
  • meet certain mathematical conditions (have a solution, consistent dimensions and the like).

In this regard, there is a need to develop an effective system for regulating the tourism industry.

Carrying out a thorough PEST-analysis will make it possible to formulate more precisely the goals of the development of recreation and tourism at the national, regional and local levels. It is very important that he focuses on social goals: the preservation and enhancement of the moral and spiritual wealth of mankind, health, the provision of conditions for reproduction and preservation of the natural environment. The strategy for the development of the tourism industry should be aimed at protecting the cultural and historical heritage, combating poverty, the consequences of climate change, preventing further climate change and environmental degradation, and reducing the negative impact on it.

The strategy for the development of the recreational and tourism sector should take into account:

  • achievement of European and world parameters of the ratio of the quality of services and prices for them on the basis of systemic measures to standardize the level of quality of services and economic incentives for enterprises to increase them;
  • attraction of external investments for the development of infrastructure for servicing recreational and tourist flows;
  • development of transport, trade, communications, production for use in resort and recreational and tourism activities and services;
  • creating an attractive tourist image of the region and promoting regional tourist products to the national and international tourism market;
  • development of the material and technical base and infrastructure for recreation and tourism (modernization with bringing to the level of world standards the material and technical base of existing sanatorium and health resorts and tourism industry facilities);
  • commissioning of newly constructed recreational facilities on the basis of the development of an economic mechanism for stimulating investment activities in this area;
  • an integrated approach to improving the quality of reception of recreational and tourist services and service;
  • bringing to the norms and international standards for the classification of hotels, certification of other host structures;
  • bringing to the international level the organization of the restaurant business and its servicing;
  • expansion of the quantity and quality of recreational and tourist services;
  • participation in the work of regional and European salons and fairs;
  • the organization of tours that will provide an opportunity to get better acquainted with the proposed products and assess the quality of the reception;
  • implementation of system marketing of the market of recreational and tourist services;
  • creation of favorable conditions for investment, tax and customs regulation of local, regional and national development;
  • ensuring rational use and protection of recreational and tourist resources, creating programs and planning further prospects for recreational and tourist development of regions in particular and the state as a whole.

The strategy for the development of recreation and tourism can be defined as a set of solutions (a system of measures, a set of targeted programs) aimed at justifying the prospects, priorities and directions for the development of the recreational and tourist sphere, the formation and effective use of the potential, ensuring its dynamic and sustainable development. The strategy should combine the interests of types of activity and society, the efforts of the state and the business sector to solve long-term economic problems.

Conceptual foundations for the development of a recreation and tourism development strategy should include the establishment of the main goal and its components (sub-goals) based on social, economic and environmental priorities. Achieving the main goal – transforming the sphere of recreation and tourism into a powerful competitive sector of the national economy – must occur simultaneously with achieving environmental development and ensuring sustainable human development. Only in this mutual unity and on the basis of highly developed infrastructure this sphere can become a powerful factor of GDP growth, employment and, most importantly, contribute to the improvement of all parameters of human development in the country.

For many countries, international tourism has become the most profitable area of activity, and revenues from it are an important component of national budgets. Travel and tourism stimulate the development of investment projects for the development of transport and hotel and tourist infrastructure (in particular, airports, roads, seaports, restoration of historical monuments, museums, development of natural security zones), which increases the quality of life of the indigenous population and the level of tourist service.

According to the report of the World Travel and Tourism Council, in 2017 almost 80 million people worked directly in this area, or 2.9% of the employed in the world economy, and in the sectors adjacent to tourism – about 225 million people (9% of the working-age population of the planet) [6]. By 2030, the number of tourist trips, according to UNWTO experts, can triple in comparison with the current period.

Increasing the role and socio-economic impact of the recreational and tourism sector should be at the center of public policy, which is implemented at different levels – macroeconomic, regional and local. Achieving the social goals of public policy has its own specifics, goals, tools and indicators at every level.

At the macroeconomic level, it is conceptually important to develop a state strategy for the development of the sphere of recreation and tourism, which clearly articulates key socially important goals and mechanisms for achieving them. At the meso-level (regional level), the declared goals and objectives are specified, based on the available natural and climatic resources and the existing infrastructure. Quite often in the world practice there is an asymmetric development of different regions of the country. For example, in Turkey, seaside tourist regions are highly developed, and remote mountain ranges are backward and unattractive for tourists with weak social protection and underdeveloped infrastructure.

Directly the provision of recreational and tourist services is carried out at the micro level, which actualizes the issue of determining the concept of tourist destination. It is here that there are available places of accommodation, food, entertainment, a certain level of service quality, a transport, information, communication system is provided.

Implementing a socially-oriented policy for the development of recreation and tourism at the local level requires the establishment of specific goals and relevant indicators. In the world practice, tools for the development of a system of indicators have already been developed to manage the tourist sphere from the standpoint of sustainable development of the territory. The principles of sustainable tourism development are related to the use and division of the sphere into the surrounding, socio-economic and cultural environment.

Ensuring high socio-economic productivity of recreation and tourism requires an integrated, cross-cutting approach to take into account the consequences of its functioning at all levels. The implementation of programs for the development of the recreational and tourist sphere is possible only on the basis of constant and careful monitoring. Only under such conditions will it be effective and sustainable.

Conclusions

In most countries of the world, tourism policy is carried out within the framework of regional economic development programs and is aimed at revitalizing the economy of backward regions. As for developed countries, the stimulation of tourism development in the regions is carried out by injecting capital into them and creating centers of economic growth. An example is France, where the construction of mountainous tourist centers of international class led to the development of mountain areas, which gave support to the local population and the creation of new jobs.

In our opinion, the state strategy for the development of recreation and tourism in Kazakhstan should be based on the continuous improvement of management of this sphere at all levels, as well as a clear orientation towards the achievement of important social goals: increasing the coverage of the entire population and certain categories by recreational and tourist services, improving the quality of services, preservation of socially protected consumer segment, improvement of health indicators, quality and life expectancy of the population as a whole.

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