УДК 332.14

ФАКТОРЫ РАЗВИТИЯ РЕГИОНАЛЬНОЙ ЭКОНОМИКИ НА ПРИМЕРЕ СЕЛЬСКОГО ХОЗЯЙСТВА КРАСНОДАРСКОГО КРАЯ

Конограй Анастасия Станиславовна
Кубанский государственный университет
студентка магистратуры

Аннотация
Данная работа посвящена развитию региональной экономики и ее основным факторам. В статье затронуты основные направления, которые влияют на развитие Краснодарского края. Особое внимание уделено сельскому хозяйству и в качестве примера была использована эконометрическая модель.

Ключевые слова: продовольственная безопасность, развитие, регион, сельское хозяйство, социально-экономические факторы, факторы развития, эконометрическое моделирование


DEVELOPMENT FACTORS OF THE REGION ECONOMY ON THE EXAMPLE AGRICULTURE OF THE KRASNODAR REGION

Konograi Anastasiia Stanislavovna
Kuban State University
master’s student

Abstract
This work is devoted to development of regional economy and its major factors. The main directions which influence on development of Krasnodar Region are mentioned in article. The special attention is paid to agriculture and as an example has been used the econometric model.

Keywords: agriculture, development, development factors, econometric modeling, food security, socio-economic factors


Библиографическая ссылка на статью:
Конограй А.С. Development factors of the region economy on the example agriculture of the Krasnodar Region // Экономика и менеджмент инновационных технологий. 2016. № 3 [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://ekonomika.snauka.ru/2016/03/11010 (дата обращения: 26.05.2017).

Regional economics – the economic study of regions based on the consideration of space, transportation cost, and location in production and consumption decisions. Regional economy studies a wide variety of topics, including the migration of labor, the macroeconomic activity in cities and states, and the location choices of firms.

Socio-economic development is a process that seeks to identify both the social and the economic needs within a community, and seek to create strategies that will address those needs in ways that are practical and in the best interests of the community over the long run. The general idea is to find ways to improve the standard of living within the area while also making sure the local economy is healthy and capable of sustaining the population present in the area.

Development of the region is multilateral process which usually is considered as set of various social and economic targets. Even if it is only about economic development, it usually is considered together with social development.

So, at the level of the region it is possible to consider the following criteria and indicators of social and economic development corresponding to them:

-     GNP or GDP (absolute value and per capita) and growth rates of these indicators;

-     average level of the income population and extent of their differentiation;

-     life expectancy, level of physical and mental human health;

-     education level;

-     level of consumption material benefits and services (food, housing, telephone services), security of households with durable goods;

-     health care level (security with policlinics, drugstores, hospitals, diagnostic centers and services of ambulance, quality of the provided medical services);

-     state of environment;

-     equal opportunities of people, development of small business;

-     enrichment of cultural life of people [1].

Value of Krasnodar Region in the Russian Federation is defined by the following factors.

Krasnodar Region realizes geostrategic function of an outpost of stability at the southern boundaries of Russia.

Krasnodar Region is the border territory and the only exit of Russia to the Black Sea and through it to the major international maritime routes.

Krasnodar Region realizes interests of Russia in a zone of Azov and Black Sea and Mediterranean economic cooperation.

Industrial, construction, fuel and energy complexes, area of information and communication technologies, and also agro-industrial, transport, recreational and tourist complexes make a basis of productive forces of Krasnodar Region.

Dynamic development of agro-industrial complex of Krasnodar Region ensures food security of the country:

-     the region has the richest resources of farmlands, including chernozems which area makes 4805 thousand hectares (these are more than 4 percent of the Russian and about 2 percent of world reserves);

-     the region wins first place among subjects of the Russian Federation on output of grain, sugar beet, fruits and berries, the second place on production of seeds of sunflower and honey;

-     the region takes the second place among subjects of the Russian Federation on production of eggs, meat of cattle and a bird (in live weight), the third place on production of milk.

Krasnodar Region is one of the regions of Russia which are independently providing the operating budget outlays and at the same time makes an essential contribution to the federal budget.

Thus, in the region there is a strong potential for development, which gives the possibility of its contribution to the realization of goals Russian Federation [2].

The food security of the region ‒ is the main instrument of ensuring stability of social and economic processes of the region.

The system of ensuring food security in the region is connected with the solution of legal and socio-economic tasks, with protection of economic interests of domestic producers, improvement of the financial and tax mechanism, modernization of technical and technological supply, the state support of the agrarian sphere, development of infrastructure of the food market.

Krasnodar Region is one of the country’s region which are most developed in the agrarian relation. The agricultural industry is the leading direction of economy of Krasnodar Region. In Kuban about 10% of the Russian volumes of grain, over 80% of rice, more than 20% of grain corn, about 15% of sugar beet and 14% of sunflower, all volume of tea, subtropical and citrus fruit crops are made.

In Krasnodar Region the State program of development agricultural industry and regulation of the markets agricultural production is realized.

Within the State program of development agricultural industry practical work on implementation of the priority national project “Development of Agrarian and Industrial Complex” is carried out.

Main directions of the program are:

-     sustainable development of rural territories;

-     creation of the general operating conditions of agricultural industry;

-     development of priority subsectors of agricultural industry;

-     achievement of financial stability of agricultural industry.

It once again shows that Krasnodar Region influences mainly food security of all country in general. The main factor on which the state places emphasis is the agricultural industry. Thanks to an agricultural industry of Krasnodar Region it is possible to be confident that social and economic development of the region will be steady against crisis situations [3].

Agriculture is important factor for Krasnodar Region. In especially it’s possible to say about grain crop. The leading grain culture in the southern regions of Russia is winter wheat. Steady production of grain winter wheat is an indispensable condition of Russian food security.

Winter wheat is the most exacting culture to growth conditions. Technologies of cultivation winter wheat had a certain impact on approach of vegetation phases. With improvement of conditions food at cultivation winter wheat without pesticides technology the tillering came for 1-3 days earlier, and full ripeness of grain increased for 5-7 days.

Protection of plants against diseases and wreckers for years of researches had insignificant impact on productivity of seeds. It is connected with that in the years of carrying out researches, the number of wreckers and development of diseases on winter wheat crops didn’t exceed an economic threshold of injuriousness.

Systems of fertilizer, protection of plants against wreckers, diseases and weeds, ways of the main processing of the soil, and also influence of weather conditions on growth, development, productivity and quality of grain of winter wheat were considered and analyzed with help of scientific literature. For studying of all above-mentioned factors special research was conducted from 1992 to 2010.

Due to the studying of four factors in the scheme of experience special indexation (coding) of options is accepted:

-     the first figure is the level of soil’s fertility – A (0 – initial, 1 – average, 2 – raised, 3 – high);

-     the second is a norm of fertilizer – B (0 – without fertilizer, 1 – minimum, 2 – average, 3 – high);

-     the third is a system of plant’s protection – C (0 – without application of means of protection, 1 – biological protection of plants against wreckers and diseases, 2 – chemical protection against weeds, 3 – chemical protection of plants against wreckers, diseases and weeds);

-     the fourth is method of soil cultivation – D (1 – not dump, 2 – recommended, 3 – dump + deep loosening)

With help of econometric modeling and data was built and analyzed influencing of some factors on development of winter wheat. Parameter such as soil cultivation was taken. This parameter has name “D” and it has recommending degree of cultivation (D2). Data about soil cultivation is taken for 2005-2010 years [4]. With help of SPSS program we have getting some equations which have general view of linear model:

y = b0 + b1 X1 + b2 X2 + … + bk Xk + e.

Then was calculated a share influencing of each factor on productivity of wheat. We have a coefficient of R2 which shows efficiency of methods soil cultivation in the sum. But for detection of efficiency concrete method it is necessary to learn indicators on each element. For this purpose it is necessary to take all coefficients of the received equation and to put their absolute values (each coefficient needs to be taken on the module). Further each coefficient should be divided into the received sum and to increase by R2. As a result of R2 should be equal to the sum of three coefficients. In table 1 we can see results.

Table 1 – Indicators of each method of cultivation

Method of cultivation

A – not dump

B – recommended

C – dump + deep loosening

Value

0.073

0.196

0.330

We calculated these indicators for each equation. In summarizing was received that dump + deep loosening is more effective method for productivity of winter wheat. Recommended method of soil cultivation is less effective method. And not dump method is bad variant for receiving a good harvest of wheat.

If will be used dump + deep loosening method of soil cultivation then will be getting more wheat. It will be best way not only for our region but for all country. So, econometric model showed one of ways how can raise development of region’s agriculture.


References
  1. Kushlin V. I. Gosudarstvennoe regulirovanie ekonomiki. – M.: Ekonomika, 2013.
  2. Zakon Krasnodarskogo kraya ot 29 aprelya 2008 g. № 1465-KЗ // Zakonodatel’noe sobranie Krasnodarskogo kraya. 2008. St. 1.
  3. Chernyavskaya S. A. Social’no-ekonomicheskie aspekty obespecheniya prodovolstvennoj bezopasnosti: po materialam Krosodarskogo kraya/ Dissertaciya. – Krasnodar, 2001.
  4. Duhnaj E. N. Productivnost’ podsolnechnika v zavisimosti ot tehnologii ego vyrashivaniya na vyshelochennom chernozeme Zapadnogo redkavkazia/ Dissertaciya. – Krasnodar, 2007.


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