УДК 338


Харисова Лейля Миннияровна
ФГБОУ ВПО Башкирский Государственный Аграрный Университет

Причины возникновения кризисов в организации могут быть различными. Важно распознать симптомы кризисного развития, чтобы своевременно использовать программы антикризисного управления. Необходимо различать внутренние и внешние факторы, симптомы и причины кризиса. Проблемы анализа и оценки кризисных ситуаций также имеет большое значение.

Ключевые слова: антикризисное управление, причины кризисов, риск, риск менеджмент, риск предприятия


Kharisova Leilia Minniyarovna
Bashkir State Agrarian University

The reasons of crises in the organization may be different. It is necessary to recognize the symptoms of crisis development in order timely use programs of crisis management. It is essential to study internal and external factors, symptoms and reasons of the crisis. Problem of the analysis and assessment of crisis situations is also important.

Keywords: crisis management, enterprise risk, reasons of crises, risk management

Библиографическая ссылка на статью:
Харисова Л.М. Effective enterprise risk management and crisis management // Экономика и менеджмент инновационных технологий. 2015. № 4. Ч. 2 [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://ekonomika.snauka.ru/2015/04/8547 (дата обращения: 26.05.2017).

As companies thrive to rеmain competitive in the 21st century, there is а consciousness that new concepts and new tools will always be produced to meet the changing demands of this environment. According to me, one of the most complicated and critical issue which needs tо be dealt with is the Enterprise Risk Management which can effectively manage a variety of risks that can impact their organizations reputation and earnings.

Every business faces the parallel challenges of growing earnings and managing risks. However, the pursuit of new profit opportunities means that a business must take on a variety of risks. All of these risks must be effectively measured and managed across the business enterprise.

Every business decision involves an element of risk. There are risks involved in making investments, hedging with derivatives, or extending credit to a retail customer or business entity. There are also risks involved when developing and pricing new products, hiring and training new employees. Aligning performance measurement and incentives with business objectives, and establishing a culture that balances revenue growth and risk management [5].

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of Enterprise Risk Management in organizations and what are the downsides of not having a proper Enterprise Risk Management framework in place. Companies which already have implemented Enterprise Risk Management have a significant higher value than companies which have not yet implemented ERM.

Enterprise risk management is a process, effected by an entity’s board of directors, management and other personnel, applied in a strategy setting and across the enterprise, designed to identify potential events that may affect the entity and manage risk to be within its risk appetite, to provide reasonable assurance regarding the achievement of entity objectives.

Dayton’s statement perfectly exemplifies what a crisis is [2]. It is chaos. There is no warning when it happens, and there are very few indicators for the different forms of businesses and groups worldwide. There are no limitations to how big or small crises are. The complexity and capriciousness of the current business environment can create crisis situations that impact organizations and their stakeholders [1]. It is important for organizational leaders to understand why crisis situations occur. In addition, it is also very important to understand when a crisis situation will happen, how it will occur, what can be done to handle it, and the extent to which it can be prevented or its impact minimized. In order to better understand crises, organizational leaders have to be oriented toward the strategic management of crisis. In addition, they must be continually ready to change their management philosophies, decisions, and actions as they prepare to be socially responsible in their management of crisis situations.

This paper analyzes the strategic management of crisis in a conceptual paradigm and emphasizes two dimensions: (a) the factors which lead to crisis situations in organizations, i.e., factors identified by examining the internal and external environment of the organization and (b) the nature of the organizational crisis i.e., whether it is related to human actions, processes, technology, and/or economics. The paper also emphasizes how to strategically manage organizational crises and suggests strategies for crisis prevention and management [7].


There are a lot of books written about crisis management, but there is no one accepted definition of crisis. Having a specific definition is important because how a subject is defined indicates how it is approached. I choose to start with a definition so that readers will understand how this article approaches the subject.

The first thing that managers should understand is that there are different perspectives on crises. According to Dayton there are two broad crisis perspectives—the operational perspective and the political-symbolic perspective. The operational perspective focuses on managing the crisis itself while the political-symbolic perspective includes a “map” of how managers and the rest of the team analyze crisis situations. Dayton suggests that many individuals in today’s workplace perceive far too many crises and subject themselves to torture when they handle complex problems. This is an interesting phenomenon because organizations typically have no meter of extremity that fundamentally determines what is truly a crisis situation or an event unless it is determined by the authorities [2].

Mitroff noted that within his business model for strategic crisis management, there are seven types of major crisis families. Economic is the first family which includes events or situations such as strikes, market crashes, and shortage of labor opportunities. The second family is informational, where there is a loss of important information or organizational records, public or confidential. The third family is physical, which includes compromised major equipment, loss of suppliers or a major disruption at а key operating plant. The fourth family, human resources, could be the loss of a key executive or member of the team, vandalism, or workplace violence. The fifth family is reputational such as rumors and gossip which can hurt the reputation of the organization. The sixth family includes psychopathic acts, i.e., unthinkable acts such as terrorist attacks, kidnapping or even tampering with products. The seventh family, natural disasters, includes tornadoes, earthquakes, fire and flash floods [6]. If organizational leaders only consider one or two of these crisis families to be possibilities for their respective individual organizations, they potentially place their organizations at significant risk. It is their responsibility to consider all as possibilities for crises and have strategic and tactical plans in place so that a crisis could be rapidly resolved and prevented from recurring.


Crises occur at every level in organizations, including the levels where teams play an integral role. Choi and Kim conducted a study to find out how crises affect the teams of an organization. They found that team level crises were often caused by external environmental factors rather than internal disturbances. These findings negated the notion that crises only impact the top managers of the company. Organizations are changing from traditional hierarchical work structures to teambased approaches to work. Organizational teams are exposed more directly to highly uncertain environments. As a result, in many cases, teams are now more at risk for a crisis than top executives. Therefore, it is very important to manage crises at team levels [1].

Crisis management is a leadership imperative involving people within and outside of an organization. Sullivan emphasized that it is an element of competition to be able to cooperate and communicate within teams, within each organization, with other organizations, with government agencies, with media, and with other groups.


An Executable Crisis Management Plan

“Strategic leaders are responsible for the future of organizations” [7]. It is essential that managers consider the importance of integrating crisis management into the organization system. Pollard and Hotho suggested that scenario planning should be included as a part of crisis management plan. Scenario planning is essential when developing a Strategic Crisis Management Plan and an Executable Crisis Management Action Plan. It is important to integrate crisis management into the strategic management of organizations because both depend on innovative and intuitive strategies which are also required in order for organizations to survive and flourish. The scenario planning process would include the evaluation of various trends and possibilities based on continuous change in the external environment due to macro-environmental forces. Organizational leaders also need to identify potential risk factors. Crisis management systems will help in effective decision making. Management of crises requires co-ordination of organizational processes, effective internal and external communications, and strong organizational leadership in the strategic crisis management of the organization.

In dealing with crises, organizations will depend on both the strategic plans and identification of potential crises. Therefore, it is important to understand the involvement of stakeholders. To effectively and efficiently manage strategic crisis management, organizational leaders must depend on good communication with stakeholders. Managing communication during the period of crisis is a challenging task because of different strategic choices. As a result, the possibility of confrontation exists among organizational leaders and various other stakeholders [8].

Crisis situations may require tailor-made solutions depending on the type of situation. Crises involve the organization, the leaders, the stakeholders i.e., people you’re working with or who are affected by the crisis, and the social media that is an integral part of the organization. Organizational leaders need to be prepared for every different aspect in terms of how to handle the crisis and how to minimize its impact. It is only possible if they follow four keys of crisis communication: “speed, accuracy, credibility, and consistency”.

Communication During and After Crisis Communication is a key component to organizational success in dealing with crisis situations or events. The study conducted by Johansen, Aggerholm, and Frandsen found that “the vast majority of organizations have a crisis or contingency plan, and most of these plans contain an internal dimension relating to the management and communication with the internal stakeholders during a crisis. Thus, the study shows rather professional and formalized behavior towards crisis management. One of the important challenges for the organization is to have proper communication within the organization i.e., in the internal environment of the organization. Many organizations routinely deal with crises and determine strategies to handle crisis situations.

According to Johansen, Aggerholm, and Frandsen, it is important to have the balancing act i.e., the greater interconnectedness between the organization and its end users (stakeholders or the final customers) to ensure a higher degree of engagement between both the parties. Johansen, Aggerholm, and Frandsen emphasized that it is essential for organizations to have their communication, compliance and investment teams work together in implementing a crisis management program [4].


The potential for crises to develop and escalate is greater than ever because of the global interconnectedness of organizations. As a result, crisis preparation is becoming an increasingly important issue as organizational leaders seek to prevent, or effectively cope with, impending crises. At no point should an organization be left unprotected from a crisis that could have been avoided. Every organization should have procedures and action plans established for crisis prevention and crisis management, whether the crisis situations or events are economic, political, structural or environmental.

The following recommendations include clarification of items from the Strategic Crisis Management:

  1. Organizations should utilize a strategic crisis management plan which includes the following relevant items:

- A formal crisis management system with pre-tested and reviewed actions plan so that crisis management is properly integrated into the strategic management of the organization;

- Involvement of organizational leaders from all functional areas so as to include specializations in the crisis management team;

- Identification of possible events or scenarios which may lead to crisis situations and their probable impact on the organization;

- Identification of key processes, resources, organizational leaders, stakeholders, and strategic choices in overcoming crisis situations;

- A continuously, updated and evaluated execution plan which matches the organization’s values.

  1. Employees need to be empowered and prepared for crisis situations and events.

- They should knowledgeable and able to act and utilize available organizational resources.

- They should be able to utilize human, social media, and other communication skills to convey the organization’s message during times of crisis.

- They should exercise strong leadership to assist in managing crisis situations and events and preventing them from recurring.

  1. Efforts should be made to engage stakeholders in the handling of crises. This includes:

- Understanding the online stakeholders and handing the media.

- Engaging and monitoring social media.

- Including stakeholders as an integral part of executable crisis management action plans.

4. Companies should hold crisis management training sessions so that executives, team leaders, and all employees are aware of protocols, procedures, and action plans to deploy when there is an impending crisis.

  1. Choi J. H., Kim J. B., Lee J. J. Value relevance of discretionary accruals in the Asian financial crisis of 1997–1998 //Journal of Accounting and public policy. – 2011. – Т. 30. – №. 2. – С. 166-187.
  2. Dayton B. W. Managing Crises in the Twenty‐First Century //International studies review. – 2004. – Т. 6. – №. 1. – С. 165-194.
  3. Ефимов, О.Н. Новейшее страхование в законах. Монография/ О.Н.Ефимов. – Science Book Publishing House, Yelm, WA, USA, 2013. – 484 с.
  4. Johansen W., Aggerholm H. K., Frandsen F. Entering new territory: A study of internal crisis management and crisis communication in organizations //Public Relations Review. – 2012. – Т. 38. – №. 2. – С. 270-279.
  5. Lam J. Line Management //Enterprise Risk Management: From Incentives to Controls, Second Edition. – 2014. – С. 83-98.
  6. Mitroff I. I., Alpaslan C. M., O’Connor E. S. Reflections: What’s Wrong with Business Schools and Why they Need to Change //Journal of Change Management. – 2015. – №. ahead-of-print. – С. 1-7.
  7. Taneja S. et al. Strategic Crisis Management: A Basis for Renewal and Crisis Prevention //Journal of Management. – 2014. – Т. 15. – №. 1. – С. 79.
  8. Thiessen A., Ingenhoff D. Safeguarding reputation through strategic, integrated and situational crisis communication management: Development of the integrative model of crisis communication //Corporate Communications: An International Journal. – 2011. – Т. 16. – №. 1. – С. 8-26.

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